The AeroRadar Application performs several tasks to assist the user in evaluating and setting training targets and needs. The tasks it performs are:

- Enter actual race data, and calculate Purdy points, or calculate race times for given Purdy points.
- Estimate maximum VO2 uptake (from actual race data).
- Estimate maximum VO2 uptake (from a qualitative fitness assessment).
- Calculate Jack Daniel's VDOT and Lactic Threshold Pace
- Training parameters for the primary zones
- Predict best race times for several typical run distances

In the following sections, these tasks are described in more detail. Also, please refer to the sections about what is VO2 and training zones for a more detail description of these subjects.

Actual Race Data

The user enters two sets of data points:

- Distances of 40m to 200m
- Distances of 400m to 100km

Times for races up to and including 200m, are estimated from the first set of data points. Times for races from 400m up to and including 100km are estimated from the second set of data points.

Also, the Purdy points are calculated for each set of data points. If the user enters a value into the Purdy field, the application calculates the time that matches the entered value. Thus, the user can set a target for Purdy points and calculate the required VO2 max, run times for distances and paces for each training zone.

VO2 Max Estimate

The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is better determined by doing a lab test. However, most people don't have access to a lab, so there are a couple of options for estimating this aerobic parameter: doing a field test or estimating from an actual race time.

There are several field tests available, such as the Beep, YoYo Intermittent and others. Some common tests used by athletes of team sports are available in our sports applications.

The AeroRadar Application uses the data entered for races from 400m to 100 km to estimate the VO2 max. It is recommended to use data above 3km to estimate the VO2 max, since at longer distances, the aerobic energy system has a more dominantly role. The calculation of VO2 max is based on the ACSM metabolic equations and Daniel's model.

If one has several VO2 tests results, consider using an average of this tests or better pick the one that repeats more often and is more representative; enter the chosen value in the "VO2 Max From Tests" field.

In the absence of either race or test data, the user can make a qualitative fitness assessment, and the application will make an estimate of an average maximum VO2. This estimate is based on the athlete's age and the fitness assessment made.

Jack Daniel's VDOT

Jack Daniel's et.al. [2] developed a fitness parameter labeled VDOT that in certain ways tracks the VO2 max. However, these two values may match or may not. The VDOT is calculated from actual race data, and gives an indication of fitness level. In a way similar to the Purdy Point system, it standardizes performances from actual race data.

Daniels' model also has an equation to predict the lactic threshold pace. This pace is around the one we should train in the Zone 2 Anaerobic Conditioning. The calculated value is reported in the "Training Zone Parameters" section.

Training Zone Parameters

The training zone are as defined in the page Training Zones, please visit that page if you need more information. Based on the supplied and estimated VO2 max (see "Max VO2 Estimate" section), the application does the following calculations for each training zone:

- Recommended training session distance
- Recommended training time in a session
- Pace range
- 100m pace range
- Number of laps required to meet the distance
- Split time per lap
- Recommended training volume based on distance
- Recommended training volume based on time

The running paces for each zone are shown in min/km (min/mile) and sec/100 m (sec/100 yd). Also, the lactic threshold is estimated based on either the test VO2 max or that one estimated from the race data.

The recommended training volume is based on both distance and time. Some athletes, mainly team sports athletes, prefer to train for a given period of time, while other, like runners, train based on distance objectives.

These running paces can be used when doing training drills. There are several training drills available in our sports applications.

The parameters are based on VO2 data as well as typical recommended ranges. These ranges and other settings can be adjusted to fit the user's need in the "Radar Settings" option of the Application.

Predict Race Times

The application predicts race best times for several distances. For each distance, it estimates a range based on several models (2,3,4,5,7,10):

- Purdy Model
- Jack Daniel's VDOT Model
- Dave Cameron's Model
- Pete Riegel's Model
- Test VO2 max Model

The Purdy model covers fairly accurately the whole range of races. Thus, this method is used as a base point for the races below 3km, from which the time range is calculated utilizing the other models. If any point from the other models differs by more than 10% of the Purdy estimate, that point is discarded when establishing the range. However, all the points appear in the detail disclosure for each distance.

The Jack Daniel's VDOT Model and Purdy models cover relatively accurate the upper range of races (3km and more). Also, using Jack Daniel's VDOT Model in combination with actual test VO2 max and the ACSM metabolic equations [10] , the race times can also be predicted from test VO2 data. Thus, Jack Daniel's VDOT method is used as a base point, from which the time range is calculated utilizing the other models. If any point from the other models differs from the Daniel's estimate by more than 10%, that point is discarded. However, all the points appear in the detail disclosure for each distance.

Radar Settings

The following settings can be adjusted by the user to better fit the training needs and one's own data:

- Lap Marker Distance: The user can enter lap distances for each zone (they can all be the same), of one's favorite track or trail. These values are used to calculate the number of laps required and lap split time when training in the different training zones.
- Metric or US Units: Select metric or US units to enter race data and see the resulting training info using the selected unit.
- % of VO2 Pace Limits: The Application uses as default the training zones as defined by David E. Martin, et.al. "Training Distance Runners" [1] , in terms of a percentage of the pace at the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max). See the section "Zone Summary".
- VO2 Max Pace Sustained Time: One can typically sustain running at the VO2 max pace for a limited time, around 10 min. This time varies from individual to individual. However, in absence of lab data, one can set a value of 10 min. This time value is used by the application to estimate the VO2 max from actual race data. The estimation is based on ACSM metabolic equations and Jack Daniel's VDOT model.

In the settings option, the user can adjust these values and establish a particular range. The lower limits for each zone are entered, and the value for the low limit of the next zone is used as the upper limit for the zone below. The upper limit for zone 4 is entered separately.

If you have more questions or need assistance, please contact us.

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